I am a Senior Management major at Bucknell University. I am currently living in Orlando, FL but moved around a lot as a child as an Army Brat. I am looking to go into Finance following graduation. If that doesn't work out, I am considering moving to Washington D.C. and doing political work for a period of time.
JOEY MARTIN has written 13 posts for business government society 2

US foreign policy has exacerbated poverty in Latin America

During the liberal insurgence in Latin America, charismatic leaders spoke eloquently to the desires of the working class majority in their respective countries. They desired to give the poor greater rights, to expand education, and to nationalize industries among other things. Their rhetoric connected with the people and following their elections, there was an uptick in newly formed government funded social programs. Unfortunately, Cold War politics reared its ugly head and the United States perceived these nationalistic actions as communism. The United States used economic and social powers to put pressure on these democratically elected leaders, fuel rage within the upper classes, cripple economies, and pave the way for the rise of oligarchic regimes. Many perceived stability from this change in leadership; however, it eventually resulted in decades of violence and human rights violations. Now, Latin America stands at an important moment in history. Most countries within the region are growing but they are still grappling with inequality and heightened poverty. My paper is directed at U.S. policy makers and offers suggestions in order to improve foreign policy within the region and support those who have been marginalized historically by both the United States and their countries’ governments.

Vote Today, Shape Tomorrow

Voting is one of the most empowering components of living in a democracy. It provides you the opportunity to share your opinions and impact the future of our country.  Unfortunately, many take this privilege for granted. It seems as though many in our country believe their vote is futile and doesn’t mean much. Anyone who watched the 2000 Presidential Election results in Florida or the 2012 Republican Iowa caucus would likely disagree.  Despite the elements of our government that frustrate us, the fact is that voter absenteeism only furthers corruption. Voters must take action to change the culture of Washington. Little change will occur when disgruntled voters aren’t making their voices heard. The overwhelmingly lopsided victory of President Barack Obama in 2008 proves the power that voters have when they are frustrated and desire change. Hold your leaders accountable for their promises.

The blog prompt this week asked that we develop a way to improve the world in 60 seconds. In my opinion, a careful selection of who leads the United States can have a profound impact not only domestically but also internationally. That is why it is important to engage in the political process and understand who you are voting for.  Politicians can ultimately determine laws that protect or restrict personal freedoms and civil liberties. The President selects judges and justices who determine the legality of critical issues like civil rights, religion, and abortion. A President you vote for today may choose a judge that will determine social policy in the US for decades.

That being said, US politicians also impact other countries around the globe. These individuals make vital decisions with regards to foreign aid, defense, and trade. They determine who we will engage violently but also who we will support in peaceful operations. US foreign policy towards other countries can impact populations for years. This fact is evident in regions like Latin America. (See Guatemala)

So, learn about the candidates. Find a candidate, regardless of party, that falls in line with your personal beliefs. Then, go out and tell others about the election. Vote in every election (local, state or federal) to honor those who fought for this right. Don’t stop there. Start a campaign or movement knowing that the impacts of your efforts are limitless.

Profit at the Bottom of the Ladder

For my white paper, I plan to focus on poverty in America with a specific lens on the working poor. Through examining statistics about the working poor and poverty in America in general, I hope to get a better understanding of what causes poverty. I want to examine the socioeconomic, demographic, and educational components that together are consistent among individuals who comprise the working poor. While I don’t necessarily expect to fully explain what causes poverty, I hope to gain a better understanding of the wide variety of factors which come into play.

This week we were asked to take a trip to the library to identify sources which would help us in our research for the White Paper. I found a book that was particular helpful with regards to my focus on the working poor.  Profit at the Bottom of the Ladder by Jody Heymann is a book which discusses the stories of businesses which have taken and alternative approach to business and employee treatment. Heymann examines twelve companies from nine countries with workforces which range from as small as 27 to over 100,000. These businesses are very different from one another and serve a diverse range of customers. Despite the significant differences between the businesses, each company has proven to do well financially, successfully implement a strategy that places emphasis on high quality working conditions for low-level employees, and has developed a wide range of other employee centered policies which have made them desirable places to work. Their financial successes have balanced the needs of various parties including owners, shareholders, and all employees of the firm. Some of the firms included are Costco, American Apparel, and Xerox.

Heymann thoroughly examines each example and makes the clear argument that it is beneficial for companies to invest in all employees at all levels. She also draws clear links to data to prove that this practice can be profitable for the companies, despite the investment. She utilizes specific references to prove that the rewards gained from the additional workforce investment outweigh the costs.  The section of the book which I read discussed the companies of American Apparel and Jenkins Brick. In this chapter, the values of incentive policies and appealing salary scales were noted. The explicit link between these types of policies and increases in employee motivation and productivity are made. Furthermore, the heightened lower-level salaries results in recruitment of the most dependable employees. This section of the book also described the case studies of Autoliv Australia and Isola. In these examples, policies involving flexible scheduling of time off and extended leave created a greater sense of loyalty amongst employees along with increased job satisfaction. Both companies determined that more generous policies surrounding sick leave and time to care for family was very important to their respective staffs. After the policies were implemented, the companies experienced lower turnover rates, fewer missed days of work, lower costs, and wrongful use of sick days. The conclusion was that such policies lead to greater employee loyalty and connection to the firm.

Now, you might be wondering how this book applies to my topic of poverty amongst the working poor. This topic is largely “Society” focused. In order to bring in “Government” and “Business” into the picture, I need to offer valuable suggestions to policy makers at the federal level in addition to upper level executives in business. This book directly addresses the “Business” piece. It offers effective solutions to companies which will result in more productivity. Meanwhile, the policies mentioned lead to a better quality of life for ALL employees, even those at the “bottom of the ladder.” Many of those individuals comprise the working poor in America. All in all it was a successful trip to the library!

Analyzing the Use of Assassination or Targeted Killings as a Legal Foreign Policy

             In 1648, just after the Thirty Years War, the state system was developed in Europe. The international behavior of the competing European states was regulated by a simple theory consistent with the general thinking of the time: the “balance of power.” The system was used for three hundred and fifty years. At that time people belonged to unified nations and they elected a leader who was expected to support the best interests of the constituents. (Asch, 1997) With the advent of communications technology and quicker transportation; however, the world’s mindset became that of billions of people as opposed to cohesive powerful nations. With the world changing rapidly and violence on the rise, the US as the world leader must change the way we cope with threats toward our nation. Nowadays we are often at war with an individual or group of individuals, not a nation. Why wage war with innocent citizens when their brutal dictators are the true enemies? The United States desperately needs a new, legal foreign policy strategy and by eliminating Executive Order 12333 section 2.11 to allow assassinations, it can better combat our adversaries abroad.

            Back in 1648 it was vital to maintain a system that was mutually beneficial to all members of the global community. It created a legal understanding between the nation-states. (Asch, 1997) Unfortunately the present threat to our nation does not represent a country but rather rogue colonies of terrorists. Allowing assassination as a legal foreign policy will ultimately be a less violent method of combat. Nevertheless there will be those who argue that such a policy would break international law. Upon researching these laws; however, one will realize that there are no explicit restrictions on assassinations. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a United Nations treaty often used against assassinations. It was entered into the force on March 23, 1976. Once the senate ratified the ICCPR in 1992; however, it took a very weak stance on the issue. In congressional resolution S4781-84, the senate stated that “the provisions of article 1 through 26 of the covenant are not self exalting”. This means that if our congress was to pass legislation against the ICCPR then that legislation would supersede the prior rule. Thus congress could take action today to legally permit this strategy. The second treaty used against assassination is the Hague Convention of 1899. This was among the first statements of laws on war crimes. In addition to being outdated, when one examines Section IV of this convention, it is obvious that the United States is already in violation of this treaty. This section prohibits the launching of projectiles and explosives from balloons. (Masters) Seeing that this convention is already being ignored, it is not a valid argument against assassinations. Finally, the Geneva Convention Protocol 1 prohibits attacks that rely on “Perfidy”. This vague statement is manipulated quite often by governments that simply redefine the enemies targeted by their attacks.

What one must realize is that now more than ever, Executive Order 12333 section 2.11 is being manipulated to satisfy our country’s goals. The Bush administration usurped this order after the murders of Uday and Qusai Hussein were carried out. (Bazan, CRS3) Repealing this order would allow our nation’s leaders to legitimately consider the policy. Former White House press secretary Ari Fleisher once stated “the cost of one bullet, if the Iraqi people take it on themselves, is substantially less than the cost of war”. I must agree with his words and say that although this proposal might seem inherently violent, it will actually result in fewer deaths. When a few special soldiers are seeking out one or a few corrupt leaders as opposed to bombing an entire region, naturally there will be fewer civilian and troop deaths. The estimated toll of civilian deaths in Iraq is over 100,000 people. (BBC News) This proposal would avoid unnecessary wars in countries where our enemies are the dictators and not the citizenry. The US will spend billions later to repair the dismantled nation of Iraq when we could have avoided the destruction by targeting individual leaders of the Taliban with undercover Special Forces.

US funding of its operation in Iraq 2003 to 2011

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Why do the FAT CATS keep getting fatter?

One of the subjects that we have briefly touched on during our time in class is CEO compensation and income inequality. We read a brief by AG Lafley who argued that it is time for CEOs to take a stand. He acknowledges in the article that “amounts and forms” of CEO pay are “unacceptable and inappropriate.” He believes that failure to take action will ultimately result in governmental action. Lafley offers several suggestions. His four main points are “reward with equity, restore integrity to equity grants, eliminate post-employment provisions not pegged to performance, and implement more-detailed analyses.” Essentially, Lafley wants to increase CEO incentives to perform well, maintain CEO equity in the firm, remove forms of pay like automatic stock options, and value executive compensation appropriately, including all forms.

I was intrigued by this subject and wanted to research it more because it stands in stark contrast to what I am planning to write about for my final white paper. My first argument draft focused on poverty in America and its impact on children and minorities. I plan to combine this dialogue with a focus on the working poor as well. Eventually, I want to recommend suggestions to federal legislators to assist those who need the most help. Providing information in my paper about the wealthiest Americans would portray the alarming shift of wealth in our country by giving examples of those who are benefitting most.

I conducted some initial research through Google and discovered a Businessweek article which stated that in the 1980s, the CEO of a major corporation made 42 times the average hourly worker in the company. This number has skyrocketed to a remarkable 531 times the average hourly worker in recent years. Many questions have been raised about whether executive compensation is truly connected to the financial performance of their company.  Recent social movements like Occupy Wall Street have shown that the general sentiment is that it is highly unlikely that all or most of the growth of a company is due to just one person. No reputable studies have connected high levels of CEO compensation to company performance. Nevertheless, it continues to increase the gap between CEOs and those front line employees who are heavily relied on to deliver growth. It is predicted that the current pattern will result in less employee motivation.

I conducted a cited reference search and came across an article titled “Exorbitant CEO compensation: just reward or grand theft?” which was written by David O. Friedrichs in October 2008. This article thoroughly discusses CEO compensation and provides a significant volume of data to back up its claims. It makes the  argument that exorbitant CEO compensation should be considered a white collar criminal offense. It even goes so far as to evaluate what changes would be needed legally to criminalize excessive pay. While this article may represent an extreme side of the debate, it provides a good starting point for me as I begin to brainstorm federal legislative changes which need to be made in order to decrease the gap between executives and those who fall below the poverty line.


Last week during Spring Break 2012, I was lucky to visit the Lake Atitlan region of Guatemala. I am working on an interdisciplinary project with a group of Mechanical Engineers to help bring affordable eye care to rural regions of developing countries. Essentially, our goal is to establish a sustainable business in Guatemala (our first stop) that can provide affordable eye care to those who currently can’t afford the high prices. Our business would not conduct surgery but rather focus on diagnostics and prescriptions. Our colleagues in Mechanical Engineering are helping to provide the tools necessary to make diagnoses at an affordable price.

After visiting Lake Atitlan, I was struck by the strong indigenous culture and physical beauty of the region. Lake Atitlan has become one of Guatemala’s top tourist destinations. It is located in the department of Solola in the Guatemalan highlands. The lake is immediately surrounded by volcanoes and mountains which makes travel to the lake a bit more challenging. The three volcanoes which circle the lake are San Pedro, Toliman, and Atitlan. The lake itself was formed about 85,000 years ago as a result of a huge volcanic eruption which created a depression in the landscape. That depression filled with water and became the freshwater lake that we know today. There are several villages that border the lake. I was able to stop in five of them during my stay: San Pedro, Santiago, Panajachel, Solola, and San Juan. Panajachel is the most touristy of the lake villages and has about 14,000 residents. Despite the commercialization, Mayan culture and traditions remain a strong influence in the other towns around the lake.

I want to revisit Guatemala because I feel that I have a lot more to learn. More time in the Lake Atitlan region would be beneficial; however, there is a lot more to see. Cities like Antigua would add to my understanding of the culture. In addition, I was disappointed that I didn’t get to see any Mayan ruins. Cities with the ruins, Tikal and Yaxha, are on the other side of the country. Also, our team only spent one day in Guatemala City, visiting hospitals and universities. Additional time in the capital to visit with politicians, lawyers, and micro-finance initiatives would be incredible.

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Business Ethics Guild Awards – Courtesy of the Blog Council

A Business Ethics Guild Award is an accolade given by the BGS Blog Council (BGSBC) to recognize outstanding blogging by class members. The award given features a nude male figure holding both a mask of comedy and a mask of tragedy and is called “The Blogger.” It is 16 inches tall, weighs over 12 pounds, and is cast in solid bronze.

Nominations for the awards are determined by and debated by the blog council of approximately 3-5 members. Winners are also chosen by the Blog Council and are notified through a post on the blog site.

This week’s prompt asked that we select a TV episode of our choosing and relate it to either management or business. We were asked to select an episode that on the surface seems to have little relation to business or management. Then, we were asked to analyze it in a way that clearly connects the show to our subject matter.

The Blog council thoroughly enjoyed reading about your shows and pondering your intuitive remarks about how each particular episode connected to our course. That being said, there were six categories that we focused heavily on:

  1. Originality and Uniqueness of Episode/ Show Chosen
  2. Integration of selected episode and thoughtful analysis with course material
  3. Creativity/ Quality of Writing
  4. Organization of Writing
  5. Use of Comedy in Blog Post
  6. Use of Drama in Blog Post

With these award categories, there were three posts this week that stole the awards show.

Amanda Skonezney’s “Drama in Beverly Hills”

Winner of:

Award for Originality and Uniqueness of Blog Post

Alyssa Kinell’s “A Jet Stream of Bullshit”

Winner of:

Award for the Best Use of Comedy in a Blog Post

Award for the Best Integration of Episode and Analysis

There is one blog post that stood out above the rest. It earned the majority of the above awards and thus distinguished itself as the best post of the week:

Caitlin Hume’s “Shady Superpowers”

Winner of:  

Award for Best Creativity/ Quality of Writing

Award for Best Use of Drama in a Blog Post

Award for Best Organization of Writing

Award for Blog Post of the Week

Congratulations Caitlin! In addition to your invisible “Blogger” statuette, you also get the opportunity to choose one week where you only have to complete half of the homework questions for FULL credit!!

Come Join Me at Downton Abbey

This week I have decided to stray from my normal political banter to share one of my current favorite shows. Downton Abbey is a television series which is produced both by Carnival Films of the UK and WGBH Boston, Massachusetts. The setting of the program revolves around a fictional estate named Downton Abbey which is located in the North Riding of Yorkshire. It was created and largely written by actor and writer Julian Fellowes. Downton Abbey is currently in production of its third season and premiered in the United States on PBS on January 9, 2011.

The series begins during the Edwardian Era in England and the year 1912. The main focus of Downton Abbey is a vivid portrayal of the lives, romances, scandals, and secrets of the aristocratic Crawley family and their staff which keeps the estate running every day. The audience is captivated by a detailed sequence of happiness and heartbreak with each of the characters in the story.

Downton is the home of the Crawleys, who have been the Earls of Grantham since 1772. The scenic estate is emphasized throughout the home in elaborate in the family drawing rooms, libraries, and bedrooms, all of which look over the vast landscape. The servant staff also lives on the property in their own quarters. Regardless of whether a character is a Crawley or a servant, there are rigid social hierarchies that all are impacted by.

There is a range of motivations and dreams amongst the servant staff at Downton. Some are extremely loyal to the Crawleys and view working at Downton as a way of life. Others, looking to climb up the social ladder, view Downton as a stepping stone to bigger and better things. Nevertheless, everyone enjoys the adventures inherent with working at Downton and is aware of privileged information within the family.

The plot thickens and social norms are challenged when members of the Crawley family and their servant staff are called to serve during World War I. Their lives become even more intertwined and many are concerned that life as they know it will be changed forever.

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Does God like Sexism, Racism and Inequality?


I repeatedly find myself following the political pundits and updates from the campaign trail. This is especially true with the crucial 2012 Presidential election upcoming. There were two speeches made by Rick Santorum which elicited frustrated responses from me. One thing that amazes me as I listen to the candidates out on the campaign trail is some of the inflammatory remarks that are made which are both untrue and offensive. These comments further stereotypes and alienate historically marginalized groups from the mainstream. The most consistent repeated culprit is Rick Santorum. I want to use this blog post to examine the some of the comments that he has made, question their validity, and put them in the broader context of realities about gender and race in the United States. Furthermore, I will prove how these archaic and bigoted remarks will lead to further inequality in our country which is still recovering from both the civil rights and women’s rights movements.

The first video above provides Rick Santorum’s remarks following a Pentagon decision to allow military women to serve in important roles closer to front line combat. While many would believe that this is an important step towards equality in our country, Santorum immediately communicated “concerns” about this change citing “other types of emotions that are involved.”

Santorum said: “I want to create every opportunity for women to be able to serve this country.” He followed that statement up with: “I do have concerns about women in front line combat. I think that could be a very compromising situation where – where people naturally, you know, may do things that may not be in the interests of the mission because of other types of emotions that are involved.”

Santorum continued his shaky defense by saying: “probably, you know, it already happens, of course, due to the camaraderie of men in combat.” He concluded by saying that women serving on the front lines is not in the best interest of any party involved.

Santorum must have ignored the fact that women were already serving in the roles granted to them by the new Pentagon guidelines in temporary positions prior. He certainly didn’t cite any evidence that the “camaraderie” was disrupted or that “emotions” prevented unit cohesion. His claims are not grounded in fact but rather scripture.

To this day, in 2012, women cannot serve on the front lines. The new guidelines further restrictions on women in infantry roles, for example. This begs the question: If women want to serve on the front lines; why can’t they? I know plenty of strong women.

The problem is leadership in this country that clings to archaic and outdated approaches to life which aren’t in line with the current views of the US citizenry. Santorum tries to portray individuals fighting for equality as “elitist academics” instead of looking in the mirror and seeing who truly is trying to enforce their life views on others. 

Santorum followed up in another interview that: “It’s not a matter of putting women in dangerous roles.” He mentioned in an interview that women were certainly able to “fly small planes.” It seems like Santorum; however, would like to keep the heavy weapon clad aircraft for the men. It is not surprising that a Santorum continues to employ a staffer that once claimed that: “having a female president is against God’s plan.” The gender roles of men and women are socially constructed and can be reversed.

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I have made no mystery of my passion for politics on our blog thus far in the semester. After examining the blog prompt this week I thought it would be interesting to discuss the Obama administration and its fiscal policies to gain a better understanding of the relationship between  business and government. I also hope to dispel any rumors or false claims surrounding President Obama’s policies.

Throughout the year of 2011 and the current Republican primaries there has been an incredible amount of focus placed on the growing national debt. The Republican candidates for President continue paint President Obama as unfriendly to business. In the President’s recent State of the Union he worked to challenge those accusations by focusing on the need for fairness, a message that resonates with many Americans. He seemed to portray himself as a pro-business populist which could be a very effective strategy for him during the general election.

The President seeks to prove that there is nothing anti-capitalist about providing benefits to businesses that support our country by bringing jobs back to the states. At the same time he can enforce additional taxes to those which ship jobs overseas.  President Obama’s creative “Built to Last” theme in the State of the Union was used to reference the success of the auto industry bailouts, which have resulted in General Motors emerging again as the world’s leading car company. Furthermore, based on the speech, it appears that Obama’s will place significant focus on investing in education and other engines of middle-class growth.

President Obama emphatically addressed businesses saying: “Tonight, my message to business leaders is simple: Ask yourselves what you can do to bring jobs back to your country, and your country will do everything we can to help you succeed.” Many have responded to this by questioning whether it is the President’s authority to dictate how businesses operate. These criticisms are misguided and overblown; however, as the President is simply referring to tax incentives for those who actively work to bring jobs back to the states. In addition to a new proposal for “minimum taxes” addressing those who make $1 million a year and are leaving the U.S. to escape taxes, the President effectively explained the benefits of such regulations. These views stand in stark contrast to Republicans who claim that regulations are preventing a faster recovery.

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TARGET: Proudly Supporting Bigotry Since 2010

Throughout the current campaign cycles Americans have heard a lot about Political Action Committees or “PACs.” They are the result of the Supreme Court Case, Citizens United, which advocates for the idea of “corporate personhood.” It gives individuals and corporations the right to form PACs which can endorse political candidates/ advocate for issues and receive donations unlimited in size and number. Continue reading

The Republican Party: An identity crisis spinning out of control

I recently found myself reading a blog entitled Cayo Buay. There was a post submitted today which discusses the current Republican primaries and asks if Ron Paul is the true conservative alternative to Mitt Romney in the race. As the primary season moves forward, the growing tensions on the campaign trail have proven that there is a serious identity crisis within the Republican party. There is absolutely no excuse for a candidate with the financial resources and organization of Mitt Romney to still be challenged at this point in the race.

How does Newt Gingrich emerge as a credible alternative in 2012? Let us remember that this is the same man that was fined $300,000 for house ethics violations in the mid 90’s. This is the same man who oversaw impeachment proceedings for Bill Clinton following the Monica Lewinsky scandal while he himself was cheating on his second wife. The answer to this question is an identity crisis in the Republican party.

Let’s take a look at Mitt Romney. This man described himself as a moderate, progressive Republican while running for Governor of Massachusetts. How do one’s views change so dramatically in such a short period of time and so late in life?

These videos prove the pressures of being a Republican lawmaker in the US today. The Republican party does not embrace philosophical diversity within its ranks. Moderate Republicans like Olympia Snow, Susan Collins, and Lisa Murkowski are vilified by their party for their stances on issues like Don’t Ask Don’t Tell repeal. The Republican primaries have become a competition to determine the most extreme conservative to appeal to the religious right in the party. Republican candidates are forced to change who they are and what they stand for just to get through the primaries. Following that period, the candidate shifts back toward the middle in the general election in order to appeal to independent voters across the country.

This pressure is much more severe than in the Democratic party where the “Blue Dogs” are welcomed and a competition to be the most liberal in the primaries is less predominant.

So what does it mean to be a true conservative? Is it social conservatism?  Fiscal conservatism? Is it just about smaller government? Is foreign policy a key factor? Or is it just being the person that says what the conservative base of the party wants to hear at the time?

The 2012 race drags on with many criticizing Romney’s “flip-flopping” and the other three candidates trying to make their case to voters that they are the “true-conservative.” Ron Paul, Rick Santorum, and Newt Gingrich refuse to drop out of the race at this time. As I try to comprehend how Newt and Santorum are still viable candidates… a slight appreciation for Ron Paul arises. He places a lot of emphasis on the Constitution, civil liberties, smaller government, and the rights of the states (especially with regards to social policy). And he has been consistent in these principles.

But wait.

He advocates for a foreign policy where the US doesn’t constantly wage war, doesn’t intervene in other countries’ affairs, and avoids occupying other nations with expensive military bases.


He is now suddenly unreasonable in the eyes of “conservative” voters across the US. The libertarians love him though! Nevertheless, I guess we’re expected to say the true conservative is Santorum who believes that the federal government should tell us who we can marry and what women can do with their bodies. This personally sounds like a more liberal big government stance to me.

As the confusion sets in, I wonder: what effect does society have on our elected and prospective government officials? What role is business playing in determining the front runner in the Republican primaries? These forces together seem to be pressuring the candidates in very dramatic ways. Maybe it is time for more parties and a broader spectrum than the traditional “liberal” and “conservative” labels. The Tea Party and the libertarian movements appear to have begun this process. Nevertheless, most of them have latched on to the Republican party which has further aggravated the identity crisis. Republican/ Conservative philosophy is being stretched in various directions but there is currently the sense that it all can’t fit under one roof.

Where is Immanuel Kant?

Personally, I am fascinated by how we as a society choose to honor our great leaders who have passed. While I was researching more on Immanuel Kant, I came across information on where he is memorialized today. Kant’s tomb is a mausoleum near the northeast corner of the Königsberg Cathedral in the city of Kaliningrad, Russia.

See it here!

This was not the original way in which Kant was buried. His body was first interred within the cathedral. In 1880, for an unknown reason, his remains were placed in another chapel nearby. There, Kant remained until 1924 when the chapel became uninhabitable. It was later destroyed in order to create the mausoleum which can be visited today.

Kant’s grave stone reads: “Two things fill my mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe, the more often and the more intensely the reflection dwells on them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me”.

What makes Kant’s memorial so special is that it was one of the few historical places from the German era that was preserved as the Russians took over the city during the war. It is said that Newlyweds to this day regularly bring flowers to the mausoleum.  In addition to his memorial, Kant is remembered by a replica statue, donated by the Germans, which stands in front of the University of Königsberg. In 2005, the University of Königsberg was even renamed Immanuel Kant State University of Russia. Over two hundred years following his death, Kant was honored in this way during a ceremony with Vladimir Putin and other high ranking German officials.  Since then, the Kant Society was created in order to further the study of Kantianism. He also has a song.

It is obvious that Kant’s contributions of the categorical imperative, transcendental idealism, and nebular hypothesis among his other philosophical successes, continue to permeate through culture today. The value of his contributions can be measured in the many ways in which he is honored to this day.

File:Immanuel Kant Tomb.jpg



Blog 5 before session 6 What (interest) or Who (person) Inspires You? For this week’s prompt, the Blog Council wants you to examine how this class relates to your own interests. So, please write about how this class relates to some of your own intellectual or other learning interests. We are NOT interested in how it relates to a specific career goal. Plan B: same idea, but based on a person. See whole post for details.

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